Regressions Of GNU\Linux
Change is not always for the better. This page chronicles bull*$&! that has come down the Linux pipeline.
- 1 Debian
- 2 Ubuntu
- 3 Misc
Predictable Network Interface Names
Someone has controversially decided that it is better for systems to have obtuse and confusing ethernet and wireless interface abbreviations such as enp0s25 instead of eth0. Remember this makes things simpler, and easier for people (but who?).
In reality, most people get the shaft, and perhaps 10% (a small proportion) of users benefit. This raises the bar for entry level people to get started. Adding unnecessary complexity to Linux.
Apt instead of Apt-get
This is a tentative, based on whether they remove support for apt-get. If that is the end goal, then this will be a valid regression, until then, they live side by side. I don't need apt, when apt-get does the job. Needless changes. There must be something more important to do than this.
Debian 10: iptables has been replaced with nftables, after nearly 20 years
"Those are some great firewall rules you've configured there. It would be a shame if someone was to make them obsolete."
It started with Ipchains in 1998. In 2000, there was the last stable release of ipchains, which means if not by then, shortly after iptables took over. It's been 19, 19 years since then. Suddenly now, a new firewall is needed. Is this necessary for most people? Doubtful. Again, a small minority will benefit. Most will get the shaft. Imagine if you couldn't buy a certain tool at the store. Say, hand saws are no longer sold. You now are forced to buy an electric jigsaw. Is this necessary? Can't we have both? Who thought changing a fundamental part of the software was a good idea? They could not had good intentions, if only for how much work they will force admins to do, with any update. Another good reason to abort Debian. Systemd is the first.
From Wikipedia https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nftables
A command to drop any packets with the destination IP address 22.214.171.124:
iptables -A OUTPUT -d 126.96.36.199 -j DROP
nftables now is:
nft add rule ip filter output ip daddr 188.8.131.52 drop
More complex. Fail.
With one fell swoop, thousands of iptables scripts and knowledge were made useless. Imagine if you were no longer allowed to play baseball. Now instead, you had to learn baseketball.
ifconfig replaced with ip
ifconfig, is simpler to use, and easier to view for basic nic information, or setting an ip (ifconfig eth# 192.168.1.2 netmask 255.255.255.0). ip is unnecessary complexity for most use cases. This raises the bar for entry level people to get started. Adding unnecessary complexity to Linux.
ifconfig remains in /sbin/ifconfig, and requires root but the effort has been made to obsolete it. Don't change, what doesn't need to change.
All you should need for DNS is a one line text file that points to a DNS server. Put that in /etc/resolv.conf. The simplicity of that is a threat to more obtuse OS, therefore there will be an effort to complicate it. This raises the bar for entry level people to get started. Adding unnecessary complexity to Linux.
debian 8: aptitude show openssl Package: openssl State: installed Automatically installed: no Version: 1.0.2k-1~bpo8+1 Priority: optional Section: utils Maintainer: Debian OpenSSL Team <firstname.lastname@example.org> Architecture: amd64 Uncompressed Size: 1,090 k Depends: libc6 (>= 2.15), libssl1.0.0 (>= 1.0.2~beta3) Suggests: ca-certificates Description: Secure Sockets Layer toolkit - cryptographic utility This package is part of the OpenSSL project's implementation of the SSL and TLS cryptographic protocols for secure communication over the Internet. It contains the general-purpose command line binary /usr/bin/openssl, useful for cryptographic operations such as: * creating RSA, DH, and DSA key parameters; * creating X.509 certificates, CSRs, and CRLs; * calculating message digests; * encrypting and decrypting with ciphers; * testing SSL/TLS clients and servers; * handling S/MIME signed or encrypted mail. debian 10: aptitude show openssl Package: openssl Version: 1.1.1d-0+deb10u3 State: installed Automatically installed: no Multi-Arch: foreign Priority: optional Section: utils Maintainer: Debian OpenSSL Team <email@example.com> Architecture: amd64 Uncompressed Size: 1,495 k Depends: libc6 (>= 2.15), libssl1.1 (>= 1.1.1) Suggests: ca-certificates Description: Secure Sockets Layer toolkit - cryptographic utility Homepage: https://www.openssl.org/ Tags: implemented-in::c, interface::commandline, protocol::ssl, role::program, scope::utility, security::cryptography, security::integrity, use::checking
Dropping Support for i386
Some distributions are dropping intel 32-bit support. With one fell swoop, hundreds of thousands of laptops and desktops made before 2006 and 2007 lost the ability to use modern OS. EDIT: this was taken back, temporarily. It stands, that some OS must support 32 bit i386, otherwise a lot of devices will be headed to landfills.
Setting up Networking has become more complicated
What was (/etc/networking/interfaces):
auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 10.0.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 10.0.0.1
Example taken direct from http://web.archive.org/web/20150916101112/https://help.ubuntu.com/lts/serverguide/network-configuration.html For DNS, a one liner in /etc/resolv.conf will suffice.
Now is (w/netplan.io)
network: version: 2 renderer: networkd ethernets: eth0: addresses: - 10.10.10.2/24 gateway4: 10.10.10.1 nameservers: search: [mydomain, otherdomain] addresses: [10.10.10.1, 184.108.40.206]
GNU\Linux has and is being obfuscated.
A plot to make linux worse, which was brought into all the major distributions through the back door. It deserves its own section.
In Ubuntu 19.04, reboot can take upwards of 5-10 minutes to actually reboot the computer. Note that this occurs in only SystemD based distributions. A similar Debian (9 or 10) w/sysvinit reboots within 10-15 seconds.
I thought I would test systemd, so I installed Zoneminder on Ubuntu 19.04, and it demonstrates this problem. After witnessing the lifeforce of my computer being ripped out by this init, I threw the towel in and installed Devuan.
For the record, I also noticed the system to run noticeably slower. CCTV is a good benchmark for a server, as it involves a lot of CPU usage, unlike many file servers, or db servers.
Example Error when Trying to Reboot
user@host:~$ systemctl reboot Error getting authority: Error initializing authority: Error sending credentials: Error sending message: Broken pipe (g-io-error-quark, 44) Failed to set wall message, ignoring: Failed to activate service 'org.freedesktop.login1': timed out (service_start_timeout=25000ms) Failed to reboot system via logind: Connection timed out Failed to start reboot.target: Connection timed out See system logs and 'systemctl status reboot.target' for details. It is possible to perform action directly, see discussion of --force --force in man:systemctl(1). user@host:~$
And it will now take my machine 5-10 minutes to reboot.
- LinuxCNC FAIL: LinuxCNC broken because systemd can't do NTP right. In 2019/2020: Years after it is the default init...
- Nosystemd.org: More details on why this init is bad.
Udev requires reboots after Ubuntu 14
When I started using Linux distributions one of the things I noticed was how well updates were handled, compared to proprietary software. No forced reboots, no update screens that leave the user waiting. You can use your computer while it's updating. This statement ("Linux never needs to reboot when it updates") changed with udev requiring a reboot in Debian 8 or 9 occasionally (However, it's still extremely rare).
Mozilla Shuts Down IRC
Would you like some support for your mozilla? Just use your social media acct to login to our great matrix (whatever the hell that is) server.
Device Tree Bindings
ARM. Sounds like a good idea, except you need a different ISO for each single ARM CPU. Unlike the intel i386 which you can use one single ISO for ANY desktop/laptop.
ARM is fail. DTB is busy work, and fail.
This is one reason why Android is a failure.
It looks like unfortunately that RISCV will also follow this path. https://forums.sifive.com/t/will-riscv-avoid-the-linux-mainlining-mess-that-arm-had/1615
Many embedded systems use less fancy buses that don't support enumeration. This was true on PC up to the mid-1990s, before PCI overtook ISA. Most ARM systems, in particular, have buses that don't support enumeration. This is also the case with some embedded x86 systems that don't follow the PC architecture. Without enumeration, the operating system has to be told what devices are present and how to access them. The device tree is a standard format to represent this information. The main reason PC buses support discovery is that they're designed to allow a modular architecture where devices can be added and removed, e.g. adding an extension card into a PC or connecting a cable on an external port. Embedded systems typically have a fixed set of devices¹, and an operating system that's pre-loaded by the manufacturer and doesn't get replaced, so enumeration is not necessary.
Well guess what - It's necessary now.